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Here’s just one glimpse of how Matthew contrasts Israel’s story with Christ to show that Christ fulfills her story. (Matthew 2.15 & Hosea 11.1);

After they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to look for the child to kill him.” Then he got up, took the child and his mother during the night, and went to Egypt. He stayed there until Herod died. In this way what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet was fulfilled: “I called my Son out of Egypt.”” Matthew 2.13-2.15, NET Bible Translation

Matthew’s use of the Old Testament in Matthew 2.15 has caused no little trouble for biblical scholars. Matthew says that Christ fulfills Hosea 11.1 when he returns from Egypt but of course the problem is Hosea 11.1 isn’t predictive its retrospective. It recalls Israel’s story and the unfailing kindness of God in calling her from slavery with her insuing idolatry.

“When Israel was a young man, I loved him like a son,and I summoned my son out of Egypt. But the more I summoned them, the farther they departed from me. They sacrificed to the Baal idols and burned incense to images.” Hosea 11.1-2

How can Matthew treat it then as predictive of Christ? Peter Enns’s offers what I believe is a very stimulating proposal;

…Matthew had in mind not simply this one verse in Hosea 11, but the larger context of that chapter. There were no verse numbers in Matthew’s day. Citing one verse may have been a way of saying “that part of Hosea that begins with ‘Out of Egypt I called my son.'” If this is true, we may be able to trace out some of Matthew’s broader theological underpinnings. The son in Hosea and the Son in Matthew are a study in contrasts. A young Israel came out of Egypt, was disobedient, deserved punishment, yet was forgiven by God (see Hos 11.8-11). The boy Christ came out of Egypt, led a life of perfect obedience, deserved no punishment, but was crucified – the guiltless for the guilty. By presenting Jesus this way Matthew was able to mount an argument for his readers that Jesus fulfilled the ideal that Israel was supposed to have reached but never did. Jesus is the true Israel, God’s true Son.Three views on the NT use of the OT

Jesus is again and again shown to be the one who fulfills Israel’s story and unlike her shows himself to be the faithful Son the Father has longed for. The faithful Son you and I deeply need. In coming to a mature understanding of the person and work of Jesus being able to see him as the fulfillment of Israel’s story is of fundamental importance. Israel’s story is our story. Jesus fulfillment of her story is our story. The story you and I are to call people to come and identify with.

Some other places to explore this contrast between Israel and Jesus in Matthew are:

Garland, David E. Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel.

Wright, Christopher J. Knowing Jesus Through The Old Testament.

Wright, N.T. Jesus and the Victory of God.

And soon to be Dr. Jason Hood’s forthcoming dissertation on the genealogy of Matthew’s gospel.